Cheek Augmentation Surgery - Cheek Implants
Cheek augmentation surgery (Cheek implant surgery) is a cosmetic procedure that involves placing implants in the cheeks in order to have a more balanced and appealing appearance. People who have experienced facial trauma or those who were born with certain facial defects are those who undergo this surgery.
The implants are selected based on the required results and the current cheek bone structure. Once the exact placement position is selected an incision either right above or below the cheekbone is made. The exact location of the incision could be near the gums or on the outer cheek or at the top of the upper lip or right below the eyelid.
Once the implant is placed inside it will be repositioned several times in order to get the desired look. The implant is locked to the desired postion with the help of a titanium screw which anchors it to the bone below. In most cases, cheek implant surgery takes about two hours to complete. If the augmentation is done to correct damage caused by an accident, bone grafts may be needed to correct damaged bones. This procedure is generally performed on an outpatient basis.
Some of the potential complications that are specifically associated with cheek implant surgery include:
▣ Asymmetrical appearance of the face and cheeks
▣ Capsular contracture, which is the tightening of scar tissue around the implant and requires additional surgeries to correct
▣ Change of sensitivity in the cheek area, though this usually returns to normal within a few months
▣ Implant rejection
▣ Shifting of the implant
The treated area may feel tight, swollen and uncomfortable in the days following the surgery; necessary pain medications may be used to ease the situation. You may be placed on a liquid diet for several days until adequate healing happens. Also since there are stitches inside the mouth, there are chances that food particles may come in contact with the stitches. These stitches dissolve in approximately 10 days. Swelling also decreases quickly and till such time, the results of the surgery may not be plainly visible for as long as three or four months. Scars are well hidden.
Chin Surgery is a surgery that is performed to reshape a chin. A chin surgery may be performed to reclaim the profile of the chin after an accident or for aesthetic purposes. Chin surgery will also affect the look of the nose, cheeks and face. Chin surgery can reduce (mentoplasty) or augment (genioplasty) the chin to give your face a more balanced appearance. An individual facial bones shift, reduce, or enlarge with age and hence most chin surgery patients are adults. Chin surgery is usually performed in an outpatient surgical center or hospital. The procedure may be performed under local anesthesia.
IMPLANTSChin Surgery teatment
FIXING THE IMPLANTS
An incision is made on the site of the implant and is placed on the surface of the bone. It is then stitched, sutured or screwed into place. Sometimes the implant is not sutured, but is simply placed in a pocket and the body�s collagen keeps it in place. For some implants, like silicone implants, titanium screws may sometimes be used.
Genioplasty is another way of improving a weak chin. A section of the jaw is removed with an oscillating bone saw. The bone is then moved forward and kept in place with metal screws and plates.
With cosmetic surgery to reduce the chin, an incision is made in the chin and the bone is sculpted. The excess is removed from it and the incision is stitched up.
Double chin plastic surgery is a different type of cosmetic chin surgery. It gets rid of the excess skin and fatty tissues that result in a double chin. Patients may be treated with Tumescent Liposuction, which removes the excess fat through a small incision.
During mentoplasty surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in one of two possible locations:
▣ under the lower lip inside the mouth
▣ under the chin in an inconspicuous location
The surgeon will then use an electrical instrument (a bone burr or a drill) to reduce and reshape the bone to create a more natural appearance. The surgeon will stitch the incision closed and apply tape to the chin area.
Genioplasty is performed by using a chin implant to augment a receding chin or by the surgical advancement of the bone itself. Your surgeon would suggest if you need a silastic chin implant or to advance your own bone. The incision will then be chosen.
If you choose a chin implant, the incision is in one of two possible locations:
▣ under the lower lip inside the mouth
▣ under the chin in an inconspicuous location
The implant is placed in an appropriately sized pocket. Sizers are used to achieve the best appearance; then the actual implant is carefully placed and the incisions are closed.
If you choose to advance bone in the chin, the surgeon makes an incision under the lower lip inside the mouth using a powered saw with a special blade to separate the edge of the chin bone. The surgeon moves the separated chin-bone tip forward and positions it with wires or special bone plates and screws. Finally, the surgeon stitches the incision closed and applies tape to the chin area.
You may also experience significant swelling or discoloration in the treated area, which will subside over the course of several weeks. The stitches are typically removed within seven days of the procedure.
Follow your doctor's postoperative instruction list to help reduce the risk of complications. There may be some pain, which can be managed with oral medications. The surgeon may have recommendations to reduce swelling, such as elevating your head. Normal activities can be resumed typically within seven days.
A Face Lift or rhytidectomy, is a cosmetic procedure designed to remove wrinkles from the face and neck in order to reduce the signs of aging. One gets a more youthful appearance by tightening the skin on the face and the neck. Results are best to those who have maintained some skin elasticity, though anyone with loose skin on the face or neck may consider getting a face lift in order to improve his or her overall appearance.
The excess or loose skin from the chin, face, cheeks and neck are removed to give the face a "lift". Suitable incisions are made near the temple area and around the curves around the earlobe on both sides. Sometimes other suitable incisions are made below the chin in order to remodel the face. Metal clips hold the skin in place for the surgeon to get the desired effect before the incision is stitched. The procedure takes only two to three hours to complete, overnight stay in the hospital is advised.
As with any surgical procedure, there are potential side effects associated with the face lift surgery including bleeding, infection and scarring.
Broken capillaries, which occurs most often in the neck and cheeks that need laser surgery treatment
▣ Temporary crusting of the incision area
▣ Temporary discoloration of the skin
▣ Unsatisfactory results
▣ Temporary hair loss in the area of incisions
▣ Temporary or permanent Nerve damage
▣ Partial Numbness in the incision area
The results are long-lasting however it may be necessary to undergo an additional surgery in a few years in order to maintain the results.
Unit follicular hair transplant has emerged as the most reliable hair transplant procedure of hair transplantation surgery. The graft in this case consists of a single follicular unit with adjoining sebaceous glands, the surrounding adventitial sheath and the supportive nerve and blood tissue. It needs to be extracted as an intact unit and transplanted as intact unit, to be able to grow into a hair. This in fact is the fundamental concept of follicular hair transplant.
Follicular Hair Transplant:hair implant/graft
Since the success rate of follicular hair transplant is nearly 100%, it closely follows the aesthetic pattern chalked out by the hair transplant surgeon for the hairline design and the graded areas posterior to it. The hair transplant procedure is quite laborious and takes a long time to complete. Moreover, it also requires a well-trained team of skilled surgical assistants to dissect them out. After the introduction of stereoscopic microscope for dissection, the results of follicular hair transplants have further improved. The larger magnification helps a surgical assistant to avoid the damage to the follicle unit and prepare the follicular hair transplant with the least amount of scalp skin.
Due to its small size, it requires only a very small incision for transplant. Small incision for a follicular hair transplant causes less damage to the recipient site and produces result which is undetectable to the casual observer. Another advantage of follicular hair transplant is that due to less damage to the recipient site, the grafts can be placed very close to each other resulting in a more denser and natural growth. Microscopically separated single haired follicular transplants allow the hair transplant surgeon to define the irregular hairline with the highest degree of precision so as to give his patient the most natural look.
Hair transplant surgery with follicular hair transplants takes 3 to 5 hours to perform and one can leave the center without any bandage on his/her head. One can also wash the transplanted hair carefully after 3 days. In a week's time complete healing would be produced.
Requirement of long hours of time and skilled team of more assistants for the preparation of 3, 000 odd follicular hair transplants through dissection is the biggest disadvantage of the follicular hair transplant procedure. The disadvantage also leads to manifold increase in the cost of hair transplant surgery.
There are ways through which the follicular hair transplant procedure can be modified so as to be completed in less time. The hair transplant procedure, which involves use of natural grouping of hair follicles, has already been discussed. The above-said procedure, if used in conjunction with the follicular hair transplant, can save a lot of time for the hair transplant surgeon who through skilled planning can limit the use of these follicular hair transplants for the frontal hair transplant and the hair line design.
Another innovative hair transplant procedure for follicular hair transplant is the Direct Hair Implants (DHI) technique which is the minimally invasive hair transplant procedure available today; it does not use scalpel, stitches or a donor strip for preparing follicular hair transplants. The DHI is based on the use of hair transplant procedure known as follicular unit extraction (Fue). Follicular unit extraction is the state-of-the-art extraction technique for preparing follicular unit transplants.
Follicular unit extraction does not require a donor strip to be excised from the donor area and therefore does not involve any dissection of follicular units. The follicular units are instead directly extracted one-by-one using custom-made, precise micro-surgical tools less than a millimeter in diameter. Follicular unit extraction is simple, painless, with the donor area healing within 2-4 days as compared to 7-8 days required for follicular hair transplants using the graft extraction technique . There is no risk of nerve damage being caused by the hair transplant procedure.
Hair transplant procedure for direct follicle hair transplant is a very simple one. The follicular hair transplant is performed only with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The standard instruments for the procedure consist of custom cut lateral slit blades, hypodermic needles and the innovative DHI implanter. A hair restoration surgeon prepares a protocol of follicle hair transplant specifically for each patient so as to ensure perfect and most natural looks. The non-invasive hair transplant procedure of direct placement of follicle hair transplants causes minimal trauma to the scalp and does not cause any pitting, indentation or scarring.
The greatest benefit of Follicular unit extraction and DHI technique is the possibility of quality control during the hair transplant procedures, the hair transplant doctor needs only a single surgical assistant to help him during the follicle hair transplants. The procedure also ensures maximum care to the grafts. The hair transplant doctor can decide upon the exact number of grafts to be removed while he is removing them one-by-one.
The best thing about Direct Hair Implants is that the hair from all over the body can be used. The technique has received much favor with the patients because it helps them to remove the excess body hair and at the same time allows them to restore hair without any surgery being performed on them.
Body hair follicular grafts removed through the follicular extraction technique are utilized only for enhancing the density in the posterior region of the scalp and not for the hair line. The outcome has been quite positive for many patients where it is hard to differentiate between body hair transplants from the head hair. It has been noticed that body hair transplants show similar growth patters when compared to the head hair with no difference in texture. Another advantage of the Direct Hair Implants Technique as a hair transplant procedure is that it lets the surgeon to extract as many grafts as required. The transplant surgeon can extract upto 1200 grafts per day and subsequent follicular hair transplants can be done immediately after the first session.
Liposuction is the removal of excess body fat by a surgeon using special suction surgical equipment. Liposuction is a popular type of cosmetic surgery to remove unwanted deposits of excess fat, that helps to improve body appearance and to smooth irregular or distorted body shapes. Liposuction may be useful for contouring under the chin, neck, cheeks, upper arms, breasts, abdomen, buttocks, hips, thighs, knees, calves and ankle areas.
Several different liposuction procedures exist:
▣ Tumescent liposuction (fluid injection) is the most common type of liposuction. It involves injecting a large amount of medicated solution into the areas before the fat is removed (sometimes, the solution may be up to three times the volume of fat to be removed). The fluid is a mixture of local anesthetic (lidocaine), a drug that contracts the blood vessels (epinephrine) and an intravenous (IV) salt solution. The lidocaine in the mixture helps to numb the area during and after surgery and may be the only anesthesia needed for the procedure. The epinephrine in the solution helps reduce the loss of blood, the amount of bruising and the amount of swelling from the surgery. The IV solution helps remove the fat more easily and it is suctioned out along with the fat.
▣ This type of liposuction generally takes longer than other types The super-wet technique is similar to tumescent liposuction. The difference is that not as much fluid is used during the surgery. The amount of fluid injected is equal to the amount of fat to be removed. This technique takes less time, but it often requires sedation with an IV or general anesthesia
▣ Ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) is a fairly new technique, used in the U.S. since 1996. During this technique, ultrasonic vibrations are used to liquefy fat cells. After the cells are liquefied, they can be vacuumed out. UAL can be done in two ways, external (above the surface of the skin with a special emitter) or internal (below the surface of the skin with a small, heated cannula). This technique may help remove fat from dense, fiber-filled (fibrous) areas of the body such as the upper back or enlarged male breast tissue. UAL is often used together with the tumescent technique, in follow-up (secondary) procedures or for greater precision.
In general, this procedure takes longer than the super-wet technique
Before the day of surgery you may have blood drawn and be asked to provide a urine sample. This allows the health care provider to rule out potential complications. If you are not hospitalized, you will need a ride home after the surgery.
A liposuction machine and special instruments are used for this surgery. The surgical team first preps the operative site and administers either local or general anesthesia. Through a small skin incision, a suction tube with a sharp end is inserted into the fat pockets and swept through the area where fat is to be removed. The dislodged fat is "vacuumed" away through the suction tube. A vacuum pump or a large syringe provides the suction action. Several skin punctures may be needed to treat large areas.
After the fat is removed, small drainage tubes may be inserted into the defatted areas to remove blood and fluid that gather during the first few days after surgery. If you lose a lot of fluid or blood during the surgery, you may need fluid replacement (intravenously) or a blood transfusion.
After the surgery, bandages are applied to keep pressure on the area and stop any bleeding, as well as to help maintain shape. Bandages are usually kept in place for at least 2 weeks. Your doctor may call you from time to time to check on your health and to monitor your healing. A visit back to the surgeon after 5-7 days is often recommended. Sometimes people gain weight after liposuction. This is due to the increased fluid from surgery.
This procedure may or may not require a stay at the hospital and depends on the location and extent of surgery. Liposuction can be done in an office-based facility, a surgery center on an outpatient basis or in a hospital. Liposuction of smaller volumes is done as an outpatient for reasons of cost and convenience.
The following are some of the uses for liposuction:
▣ Cosmetic reasons, including "love handles", fat bulges or an abnormal chin line
▣ To improve sexual function by reducing abnormal fat deposits on the inner thighs, thus allowing easier access to the vagina
▣ Body shaping for people who are bothered by fatty bulges or irregularities that cannot be removed by diet and/or exercise
Liposuction is generally NOT appropriate for these uses:
As a substitute for exercise and diet or as a cure for general obesity. However, it may be used to remove fat from isolated areas at different points in time
As a treatment for cellulite (the uneven, dimpled appearance of skin over hips, thighs and buttocks)
In certain areas of the body, such as the fat on the sides of the breasts, because the breast is a common site for cancer
Many alternatives to liposuction exist, including a tummy tuck (abdominoplasty), removal of fatty tumors (lipomas), breast reduction (reduction mammaplasty) or a combination of plastic surgery approaches.
There are also risks associated with liposuction, including:
▣ Shock (usually when not enough fluid is replaced during the surgery)
▣ Fluid overload (usually from the procedure)
▣ Infections (strep, staph)
▣ Bleeding, blood clot
▣ Tiny globules of fat in the bloodstream that block blood flow to tissue (fat embolism)
▣ Nerve, skin, tissue or organ damage or burns from the heat or instruments used in liposuction
▣ Uneven fat removal (asymmetry)
▣ Drug reactions or overdose from the lidocaine used in the procedure
▣ Scarring (skin surface may be irregular, asymmetric or even "baggy" especially in older people)
The liposuctioned area may appear larger than before surgery because of swelling. You must wear a tight stocking, girdle or snug elastic dressing over the treated area to reduce swelling and bleeding and to help shrink the skin to fit the new contour. You should wear this garment continuously for 2 to 3 weeks.
You are most likely to have swelling, bruising, numbness and pain, but it can be managed with medications. The stitches will be removed in 5 to 10 days. Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent infection.
You may feel sensations such as numbness or tingling, as well as pain, for weeks after the surgery. Walk as soon as possible after surgery to help prevent blood clots from forming in your legs. Avoid more strenuous exercise for about a month after the surgery.
You will start to feel better after about 1 or 2 weeks following liposuction surgery. You may return to work within a few days of the surgery. Bruising and swelling usually go away within three weeks. However, you may still have some swelling several months later. Your new body shape will begin to emerge in the first couple of weeks, but the improvement won't become more visible until about 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. By exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet, you can help maintain your new shape.
Male breast reductions are mostly conducted to correct a condition called Gynecomastia. Though this condition affects 40 to 60 percent of all men, to some extent and the condition quite frequently only affects one breast. The procedure is aimed to make their chests appear more symmetrical. Though there are many potential causes, the exact cause of Gynecomastia is unknown.
Excess breast tissue can develop in young boys during puberty which generally disappears within a year. Obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, tumors, genetic disorders, chromosomal abnormalities, impaired liver function and the use of medications that contain estrogen are other reasons for the same.
In one method removal of excess glandular tissue from the body is done with a scalpel. Liposuction may be done alongside to remove excess fatty tissue.
In liposuction excess amounts of fatty breast tissue is removed by inserting a thin tube (cannula), through an incision. Suitable drains will be placed in the surgery site remove excess fluids that may accumulate after the surgery.
The gynecomastia surgery procedure is done under a general anesthesia or a combination of local anesthesia with sedation and takes approximately three hours. Any drains used are removed in about three days after surgery. Total recovery time is approximately six weeks.
Nose augmentation (technically called rhinoplasty) by using a silicone implant is a cNose augmentation (technically called rhinoplasty) by using a silicone implant is a cosmetic procedureosmetic procedure to improve the nose aesthetically, by harmonizing it with other facial features. Surgery of the nose improves the appearance and proportion of your nose, enhancing facial harmony and self confidence. Surgery of the nose may also correct impaired breathing caused by structural defects in the nose. After the rhinoplasty, one will have a beautiful profile, without conspicuous sign of surgery. There are a number of procedures within the scope of nose reshaping, so the exact nature of the treatment will depend on the desired result. Depending on the extent of the surgery, the operation may take place under a general or local anesthetic and will take around two hours.
There are two main techniques used in nose reshaping operations: Open and Closed. Open means that some or all of the cuts are made outside the nose; closed means all cuts are made inside the nose.
A nose reshaping operation normally involves separating the soft tissue that lies on top of the nose from the bone and cartilage underneath. Depending on the operation, the surgeon might break the nose bone and reposition it and/or reshape the cartilage. This may include lowering humps, narrowing of nasal bones, shaping of the nasal tip or nostril size and improving the angle between the nose and the upper lip. Adding tissue to enhance certain features of the nose can also occur.
The procedure takes one hour and is done under either local anesthesia or general anesthesia. Post operation the nose would be covered with a metal or plastic splint or plaster to maintain its shape and position of the nasal bones. Patients are advised not to undergo any severe exertion for 2 to 3 weeks
Penile enlargement can add length or girth to the penis and in some cases may help a man to feel less self-conscious about this area.
There are different techniques used in penile enlargement. The suspensory ligaments that attach the penis to the under surface of the pubic bone are released causing the portion of the penis normally hidden inside the body to be visible. Suitable tissue expanders may be added to prevent contraction of the ligament in the future. An increase in length varies, depending on a patient's anatomy. It generally ranges from 1-1/2" to 2". A scrotalplasty procedure can be performed to reduce the skin of the scrotum making the penis appear more prominent. Fat injections or tissue grafts add girth to the penis shaft or the head of the penis known as the glans.
The procedure to increase the thickness involves a simple transfer of the patient's own fat cells. The use of fat cells for augmentation limits the risk of rejection of the body. The result is a penis of the same shape and length but greater in circumference. Because the penile shaft is narrower than the maximum diameter of the head, the doctor usually fills out the shaft slightly beyond the head's maximum diameter to maintain proper proportion.
Circumference can be increased by 50 percent or more, depending on the results desired by the patient. This is best achieved by a separate second stage fill procedure three months from the first. In each procedure there is an increase in both the flaccid and erect state.
The surgery takes 1 to 3 hrs. The patient is advised to stay overnight in the hospital. Out patients care is advised for a few days. Pain would be there which can be comfortably managed through proper medication. One can resume sexual activity in 4 to 8 weeks depending on the extent of surgery.
The following risks are there with this procedure
▣ Loss of sensitivity in the penis or increased sensation
▣ Asymmetry in the operated area
▣ Excessive scarring
▣ Shortening or retraction of the penis
▣ Less erect erections
A complete reconstruction of a penis is done on both cisgendered men and on transmen.
The basic procedures have similarities (except in extreme cases of micro/macropenis), although surgery on cisgendered men can be simpler, since the urethra still ends in the front of the genital area, whereas the urethras of transmen end near the vaginal opening and have to be lengthened considerably. The lengthening of the urethra is a difficult part of total phalloplasty, and also the one where complications often occur.
An erectile prosthesis can be inserted into the neophallus to replace the erectile tissue and enable sexual penetration. A separate surgery is done for this to enable healing. Several types of erectile prostheses are there ranging from malleable rod-like medical devices so the neo-penis can either stand up or hang down, to elaborate pumping systems. In order for this to be a safe option, Penile implants require a neophallus of appropriate length and volume. The long term success rates of implants in a reconstructed penis have been poor. Good sensation of the reconstruction can help reduce the risk for the implant eventually eroding through the skin. It is for this reason that living bone was first used inside the reconstruction. Long-term follow-up studies from Germany and Turkey of more than 10 years now prove that these reconstructions maintain their stiffness without late complications.
There are three different techniques for phalloplasty using graft from the arm, leg, abdomen or musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi.
This technique involves using a free graft of tissue that is removed from its original place, rolled up, with a part of it forming the new urethra and grafted to its new place between the thighs. In the past, the donor site was usually the inner side of the forearm but sometimes the upper arm, leg or abdomen can be used. The arm flap operation is easier to perform but requires an implant and has a cosmetically undesirable scar on the exposed area of the arm. The lower leg operation takes along with the skin a piece of the small bone of the leg. Like the appendix, humans can live fine without it. The scar in the leg is easily covered with a sock and hidden from view. These are the two operations which are used most commonly today in the world. They have normal skin on them and can have good cosmetic results. Skin grafted muscle flaps have fallen from popularity. The grafts have a less natural appearance and are less likely to maintain an implant long term.The four total phalloplasty method of penile reconstruction takes a period of 9-18 months
It is able to achieve the 12 major aesthetic and functional goals of modern penile reconstruction-a penis that:
▣ is large, with substantial volumeenables
▣ safe insertion of a prosthesis
▣ is hairless
▣ has satisfactory aesthetic appearance
▣ has normally colored skin
▣ has both penile tactile and erogenous sensation
▣ has a competent neo-urethra with a meatus at the top of the glans
▣ can have sexual intercourse
▣ leaves no conspicuous, disfiguring scars at the donor site
▣ has very low occurrence of disease or other complication
▣ achieves patient satisfaction
▣ improves quality of life
Sensation is retained through the clitoris which is at the base of the neo-phallus. Often a large nerve in the graft is connected to nerves either from the clitoris or other nearby nerves. In addition, nerves from the graft and the tissue it has been attached to usually connect after a while, thereby allowing additional sensation.
The forearm and leg flaps are the most common surgical techniques for total phalloplasty today. They remain the state of the day for both function and aesthetics. Muscle Flap procedures need long term publications of their function and aesthetics before making extreme claims of their popularity and superiority.
A tummy tuck or abdominoplasty helps gets rid of loose or wrinkled skin and is the most effective way tummy tuck or abdominoplasty helps gets rid of loose or wrinkled skinto tighten your stomach area. Stretch marks between the belly button and pubic hair are eliminated along with any fat tissue in the lower abdomen. The abdominal wall muscles are tightened so that even when sitting down or bending over the abdomen doesn't stick out.
Abdominal wall deformities can be classified into three:
▣ Loose or wrinkly skin, stretch marks due to ageing, pregnancy or excess weight loss
▣ Fat tissue in the lower abdomen
▣ Muscle separation, which can occur by itself or as a result of pregnancy
Though Liposuction takes care of excess fat tissue, loose skin and stretch marks need to be addressed by dermatolipectomy, mini-tummy tuck or full tummy tuck. The tummy tuck addresses the three components of your abdomen: the skin, fat and muscle. Most notable is the fact that work is done to tighten the muscles, which will benefit women who want as flat a stomach as possible . Results, especially when combined with liposuction of the flanks are dramatic. A mini tummy tuck is best suited for women who don't have stretch marks or saggy skin but have a pouch below the belly button. It can be done through an incision in the belly button, or through a C section scar if excess skin need to be taken off.
The procedure is not a good skin tightening procedure.Tummy Tuck or Abdominoplasty helps gets rid of loose or Wrinkled Skin
It can only tighten a limited area directly above the pubic mound. If you try to tighten more, you end up extending the scar sideways and you get a longer scar that is no longer well hidden and still not the amount of tightening that will make you happy.
▣ It really doesn't take care of stretch marks
▣ It does not take care of any muscle wall separation above the belly button
The Tummy Tuck treats two conditions: a muscle separation above and below the belly button and excessive or loose skin in the belly. It is really two operations, a muscle repair and a skin excision. The skin excision part is called a Dermatolipectomy. All the skin between the belly button and pubic mound is taken out. Thus it can take care of all the stretch marks below the belly button. The skin above the belly button is stretched to reach the top of the pubic mound. Any stretch marks above the belly button will come to lie just above the pubic mound.
The scar from a Tummy Tuck usually goes from hip bone to hip bone, but this is not an absolute. If there is a lot of loose skin or a fold of abdominal skin, the scar may extend beyond the hipbones. The incision is done in such a way that the scar comes below the panty line.